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{"id":280674730007,"title":"Oak, Swamp White","handle":"oak-swamp-white","description":"\u003ch1 class=\"p1\"\u003e\u003cspan style=\"color: #000000;\" class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003cb\u003eOak, Swamp White\u003c\/b\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/h1\u003e\n\u003ch3 class=\"p1\"\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003ci\u003eAn orange-gold beauty in the autumn, the resilient Swamp White Oak has great aesthetic appeal as a regal \u003c\/i\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s2\"\u003e\u003ci\u003eshade tree\u003c\/i\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003ci\u003e that can survive for centuries…\u003c\/i\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h3\u003e\n\u003ch2 class=\"p3\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003cb\u003eWhat distinguishes the lovely Swamp White Oak?\u003c\/b\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/h2\u003e\n\u003cul class=\"ul1\"\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s3\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e \u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eYear-round appeal thanks to its striking bark and dense, lustrous two-tone foliage\u003c\/span\u003e \u003c\/strong\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cul class=\"ul1\"\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eSwift growth rate.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eCan survive for centuries under optimal conditions \u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003ePopular landscaping choice due to its shape and durability.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eEnchanting \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s2\"\u003efall colors\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eRelative transplanting ease.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eTolerance of poor drainage.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p3\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003cb\u003eKeeping up appearances…\u003c\/b\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p6\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eThe Swamp White Oak ages well, known to survive for 300-350 years. When mature, it towers up at 50-60 ft. (with the tallest known tree reaching nearly 100 ft.) and boasts a spread of 50-60 ft. on average. Its bark resembles that of the White Oak: it is tan or brown in color, and flaky. The tree produces peduncled acorns that mature six months after pollination (attracting a wide variety of wildlife including deer and ducks) and unscented catkins that bloom in April. Its leaves are broad ovoid, shallowly lobed, and dark green with a silvery underside; these turn earthy shades of brown, gold, and bronze (and, occasionally, red) in autumn. \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p8\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003cb\u003eA friendly recommendation.\u003c\/b\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p6\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eApart from contributing as a food source to many animals, the Swamp White Oak, like other oaks, plays a part in the nurturing of fellow plants. Its leaves decompose more slowly than most other trees (like the Buckthorn or Maple). This provides the perfect insulating cover to support soil microorganisms (and thus insects, and thus other affected wildlife) during the winter months. The Swamp White Oak favors full sun and medium to wet soil. With a 3-8 hardiness range, this \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s2\"\u003eshade tree\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e survives in a wide spectrum of environments.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p7\"\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePhotos Copyright © Horticopia, Inc. 2017\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePhotos \u003cspan\u003ePaul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e","published_at":"2020-09-10T19:53:34-04:00","created_at":"2017-10-31T17:10:45-04:00","vendor":"nursery ecommerce","type":"Trees","tags":["Oak","Shade Trees"],"price":2952,"price_min":2952,"price_max":23632,"available":true,"price_varies":true,"compare_at_price":0,"compare_at_price_min":0,"compare_at_price_max":11000,"compare_at_price_varies":true,"variants":[{"id":2970025263127,"title":"1 Gallon Container","option1":"1 Gallon Container","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"1929","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":null,"available":true,"name":"Oak, Swamp White - 1 Gallon Container","public_title":"1 Gallon Container","options":["1 Gallon Container"],"price":2952,"weight":5000,"compare_at_price":0,"inventory_quantity":200,"inventory_management":"shopify","inventory_policy":"deny","barcode":null,"requires_selling_plan":false,"selling_plan_allocations":[]},{"id":2970025295895,"title":"3 Gallon Container","option1":"3 Gallon Container","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"1945","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":null,"available":true,"name":"Oak, Swamp White - 3 Gallon Container","public_title":"3 Gallon Container","options":["3 Gallon Container"],"price":4399,"weight":15876,"compare_at_price":null,"inventory_quantity":17,"inventory_management":"shopify","inventory_policy":"deny","barcode":null,"requires_selling_plan":false,"selling_plan_allocations":[]},{"id":31754957848599,"title":"5 Gallon Container","option1":"5 Gallon Container","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"4650","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":null,"available":true,"name":"Oak, Swamp White - 5 Gallon Container","public_title":"5 Gallon Container","options":["5 Gallon Container"],"price":10306,"weight":10000,"compare_at_price":8800,"inventory_quantity":20,"inventory_management":"shopify","inventory_policy":"deny","barcode":null,"requires_selling_plan":false,"selling_plan_allocations":[]},{"id":31754957979671,"title":"7 Gallon Container","option1":"7 Gallon Container","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"1939","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":null,"available":true,"name":"Oak, Swamp White - 7 Gallon Container","public_title":"7 Gallon Container","options":["7 Gallon Container"],"price":23632,"weight":10000,"compare_at_price":11000,"inventory_quantity":20,"inventory_management":"shopify","inventory_policy":"deny","barcode":null,"requires_selling_plan":false,"selling_plan_allocations":[]}],"images":["\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/Oak_Swamp_White_3_Horticopia.jpg?v=1600131210","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/Oak_Swamp_White_Horticopia.jpg?v=1601322014","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/0008248-SMPT.jpg?v=1601322015","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/1g-Oak_Swamp_White.jpg?v=1600131221"],"featured_image":"\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/Oak_Swamp_White_3_Horticopia.jpg?v=1600131210","options":["Size"],"media":[{"alt":"Oak, Swamp White Tree For Sale","id":867821387799,"position":1,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"width":600,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/Oak_Swamp_White_3_Horticopia.jpg?v=1600131210"},"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/Oak_Swamp_White_3_Horticopia.jpg?v=1600131210","width":600},{"alt":"Oak, Swamp White Tree For Sale","id":867821453335,"position":2,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"width":600,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/Oak_Swamp_White_Horticopia.jpg?v=1601322014"},"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/Oak_Swamp_White_Horticopia.jpg?v=1601322014","width":600},{"alt":"Oak, Swamp White Tree Acorn For Sale","id":867824369687,"position":3,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":1536,"width":1536,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/0008248-SMPT.jpg?v=1601322015"},"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":1536,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/0008248-SMPT.jpg?v=1601322015","width":1536},{"alt":"Oak, Swamp White - Ready To Grow Trees","id":1454178336791,"position":4,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":0.667,"height":1200,"width":800,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/1g-Oak_Swamp_White.jpg?v=1600131221"},"aspect_ratio":0.667,"height":1200,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/2473\/3486\/products\/1g-Oak_Swamp_White.jpg?v=1600131221","width":800}],"requires_selling_plan":false,"selling_plan_groups":[],"content":"\u003ch1 class=\"p1\"\u003e\u003cspan style=\"color: #000000;\" class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003cb\u003eOak, Swamp White\u003c\/b\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/h1\u003e\n\u003ch3 class=\"p1\"\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003ci\u003eAn orange-gold beauty in the autumn, the resilient Swamp White Oak has great aesthetic appeal as a regal \u003c\/i\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s2\"\u003e\u003ci\u003eshade tree\u003c\/i\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003ci\u003e that can survive for centuries…\u003c\/i\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h3\u003e\n\u003ch2 class=\"p3\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003cb\u003eWhat distinguishes the lovely Swamp White Oak?\u003c\/b\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/h2\u003e\n\u003cul class=\"ul1\"\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s3\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e \u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eYear-round appeal thanks to its striking bark and dense, lustrous two-tone foliage\u003c\/span\u003e \u003c\/strong\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cul class=\"ul1\"\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eSwift growth rate.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eCan survive for centuries under optimal conditions \u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003ePopular landscaping choice due to its shape and durability.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eEnchanting \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s2\"\u003efall colors\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eRelative transplanting ease.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli class=\"li4\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cspan class=\"s4\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eTolerance of poor drainage.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p3\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003cb\u003eKeeping up appearances…\u003c\/b\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p6\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eThe Swamp White Oak ages well, known to survive for 300-350 years. When mature, it towers up at 50-60 ft. (with the tallest known tree reaching nearly 100 ft.) and boasts a spread of 50-60 ft. on average. Its bark resembles that of the White Oak: it is tan or brown in color, and flaky. The tree produces peduncled acorns that mature six months after pollination (attracting a wide variety of wildlife including deer and ducks) and unscented catkins that bloom in April. Its leaves are broad ovoid, shallowly lobed, and dark green with a silvery underside; these turn earthy shades of brown, gold, and bronze (and, occasionally, red) in autumn. \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p8\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e\u003cb\u003eA friendly recommendation.\u003c\/b\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p6\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003eApart from contributing as a food source to many animals, the Swamp White Oak, like other oaks, plays a part in the nurturing of fellow plants. Its leaves decompose more slowly than most other trees (like the Buckthorn or Maple). This provides the perfect insulating cover to support soil microorganisms (and thus insects, and thus other affected wildlife) during the winter months. The Swamp White Oak favors full sun and medium to wet soil. With a 3-8 hardiness range, this \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s2\"\u003eshade tree\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"s1\"\u003e survives in a wide spectrum of environments.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp class=\"p7\"\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePhotos Copyright © Horticopia, Inc. 2017\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePhotos \u003cspan\u003ePaul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e"}

Oak, Swamp White

Product Description
Size
$29.52
Maximum quantity available reached.

Oak, Swamp White

An orange-gold beauty in the autumn, the resilient Swamp White Oak has great aesthetic appeal as a regal shade tree that can survive for centuries…

What distinguishes the lovely Swamp White Oak?

  • Year-round appeal thanks to its striking bark and dense, lustrous two-tone foliage
  • Swift growth rate.

  • Can survive for centuries under optimal conditions

  • Popular landscaping choice due to its shape and durability.

  • Enchanting fall colors.

  • Relative transplanting ease.

  • Tolerance of poor drainage.

Keeping up appearances…

The Swamp White Oak ages well, known to survive for 300-350 years. When mature, it towers up at 50-60 ft. (with the tallest known tree reaching nearly 100 ft.) and boasts a spread of 50-60 ft. on average. Its bark resembles that of the White Oak: it is tan or brown in color, and flaky. The tree produces peduncled acorns that mature six months after pollination (attracting a wide variety of wildlife including deer and ducks) and unscented catkins that bloom in April. Its leaves are broad ovoid, shallowly lobed, and dark green with a silvery underside; these turn earthy shades of brown, gold, and bronze (and, occasionally, red) in autumn.

A friendly recommendation.

Apart from contributing as a food source to many animals, the Swamp White Oak, like other oaks, plays a part in the nurturing of fellow plants. Its leaves decompose more slowly than most other trees (like the Buckthorn or Maple). This provides the perfect insulating cover to support soil microorganisms (and thus insects, and thus other affected wildlife) during the winter months. The Swamp White Oak favors full sun and medium to wet soil. With a 3-8 hardiness range, this shade tree survives in a wide spectrum of environments.

 

Photos Copyright © Horticopia, Inc. 2017

Photos Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org

Customer Reviews

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Planting a Tree correctly is very important and is something that Ready-To-Grow-Trees takes very seriously.  We want to make sure you are completely satisfied with our product and service.  We are here to help make the planting experience an easy and pain free experience. 

When the plant arrives

Our plants will arrive in a box and usually shipped by FedEx Ground.

  1. Check the box for any damages and report any damages directly to FedEx
  2. Carefully cut all tape and straps prior to opening the box
  3. Carefully open the box and check the soil with your fingers for moisture
  4. If the soil feels dry then give the plant a little water
  5. Plant as soon as possible

How will your plant appear on arrival?

Each plant species is unique and so the size, roots, and appearance will all vary slightly.  Our container trees will usually arrive without leaves during the winter months.  This is normal and it may appear that the tree is dead.  The tree is simply dormant and will wake up in the spring.  If you receive a container tree in the spring or fall then the plant will have leaves.  

See our video in our blog.  

 Storage for container trees

If you can not plant the tree right away then take it out of the box and keep out of the extreme cold and extreme heat.  Place where it will receive partial shade during the day and keep out of freezing weather at night.  Give the plant a little water every other day until ready to plant.

Planting instructions for container trees

Open the box and carefully remove your tree from the box.  You will need to dig a hole no deeper than the height of the root ball and 2-3 times as wide as the root ball.  You do not want the hole any deeper than the total height of the root ball. Planting too deep is detrimental to the survival and growth of your tree.  Once your hole is dug gently remove the tree from the container.  If your tree is difficult to remove check the bottom of the tree container to see if roots are protruding and remove them.  It also helps to tap gently on the sides of the container to loosen the tree.  Once you remove your tree from the container place the tree in the middle of the hole. You want to be sure the top of your root ball is at ground level or a little bit higher.  Fill the hole back with the soil you dug out.  Water the tree from a hose on low flow to settle the soil.  Place a 3 foot circle of mulch around your tree at 2-3 inches deep. Be sure to keep the mulch at least 3 inches away from the trunk of the tree. Water your tree about once a week during the growing season to keep the soil most and your plant healthy. 

Our forte at Ready to Grow Trees is being different than other online nurseries. Ready to Grow trees RediRoot© containers are naturally air pruned to ensure the tree grows, which stimulates the growth of new lateral roots and prepares trees for rapid growth upon shipment. A standard container provides limited growth to the tree. Here are the following benefits from our containers that stick out from the industry standard.

  • Transplant Shock – Our container reduces transplant shock resulting in less plant loss overall and faster first-year growth.
  • Rapid Nutrient Uptake- Well branched, fibrous root systems uptake water and nutrients more efficiently.
  • Aeration- Aeration to the root zone air-prunes roots, preventing circling, and eliminating the need for root pruning during the transplant process.
  • Ready to Grow – Air pruned root tips are calloused off and ready to explode with new growth.

Our size containers come in four different variances. 1, 3, 5, and 7-gallon containers.

RediRoot© Container

Orders are shipped M-W to ensure that they arrive to customers before the end of the business week.  Having plants in a warehouse or van trailer over weekends, particularly during the extreme summer and winter temperatures is detrimental to the health of the plants.

Plants are typically shipped the week following order placement unless otherwise specified by the customer.  Ready-To-Grow-Trees will make every effort to ensure that each plant is shipped within one week following order placement.

Plants are packaged in a manner that ensures they are secure within the box to prevent jostling and associated damage during shipping.

Should your product arrive in a box that has been damaged during shipping, please contact Ready-To-Grow-Trees immediately to allow for a proper shipping claim.  Ready-To-Grow-Trees is not responsible for any loss due to damage caused by shipping carriers, but will absolutely work with our customers to file a proper damage claim with each carrier.  For all successful claims, Ready-To-Grow-Trees will ship a replacement product as soon as possible.  If the exact product is no longer in stock, Ready-To-Grow-Trees will be happy to offer a replacement product of similar value.  Please note the following requirements for any parcel damaged during shipping:

  • We must receive notification within 24 hours of receipt of the damaged product that includes your order number, description of the damage and pictures of the damage.
  • The customer must retain the damaged parcel (and plant) for a minimum of 7 days to allow the carrier to inspect the damage.

At this time, Ready-To-Grow-Trees is able to ship our plants only to states east of Texas. Refer to the shipping map below for availability. 

 

Winter Shipping Schedule

All trees and shrubs are available to ship year-round, although we do restrict deliveries in the winter months based on the plant hardiness zones below:

    Zone 3:   No shipping from November 1st through May 1st

    Zone 4:   No shipping from November 1st through May 1st

    Zone 5:   No shipping from November 30th through April 15th

    Zone 6:   No shipping from December 31st through March 15th

    Zones 7 and Up:    Ships year-round.  No shipping restrictions.

 

Other Conditions

  • During the shipping and transplanting process, it is not uncommon for plants to experience some minor leaf shedding or color change to the leaves. Simply remove the affected foliage and your plant will grow new, healthy foliage in due time.  Claims associated with leaf shedding, leaf coloration or other leaf damage are not valid.
  • Plants may be pruned prior to shipping to prevent damage to the plant during shipping. This will not have any detrimental effects on the plant, and in fact, typically minimizes stress on the plants during shipping and transplanting.  Young plants typically do not have significant branching, but given time, proper branching will occur.

It is the customers responsibility to ensure that any plants ordered are suitable for the customers plant hardiness zone, soil conditions and growing site.  Plant hardiness zone maps are provided by Ready-To-Grow-Trees are based on USDA guidelines and are offered as a courtesy to our customers.  Other information provided by Ready-To-Grow-Trees is for reference only. We strongly encourage all customers to do the proper homework to make sure you have all the information you need before purchasing. Some factors to take into consideration are microclimates, extreme elevations, wind protection, mulching and snow cover.

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